The development of hydrogen fuel

The development of hydrogen fuel as fuel bodyshaper Vladimir Putin recently spoke of the need for “technological breakthrough” in the development of the country. This technology to break
there are projects for using hydrogen as fuel…

 

Hydrogen – fuel of the future

Author – Viktor Kantemirov

Projects for the use of hydrogen as fuel of the future in our country, it seems, are moving from science fiction into practical reality. Russia, known as a major supplier in the international market of oil and gas, will soon be put to the European markets hydrogen. Sale it is now just starting to gain momentum of growth. By calculations of experts, by 2050, the demand for hydrogen will increase ten times and will take 15-20% of the world energy market. Starting in 2040, in the UK and Europe plan to stop selling cars with petrol engines. This decision should stimulate the evolution of hydrogen energy and all its technical components as a whole.

Sleeves rolled up, it is taken for Russian nuclear scientists . So, at the end of 2018, the state Corporation “Rosatom” announced its decision to include hydrogen energy as part of their “priority directions of technological development in the sectoral composition of the national project”. And in the role of customer technical solutions for the needs of nuclear-hydrogen power engineering is JSC “VNIIAES”

It is important to clarify that the atomic hydrogen is more of a byproduct of the technological process, as well as associated gas from the oil. Accumulating, it becomes dangerous and easier to burn than to find a practical application. Oh, no wonder the mixture of hydrogen and oxygen is called “detonating gas”. Even a small concentration of oxygen impurity in the hydrogen makes it explosive. At nuclear power plants of VVER type in the active zone of the reactor and in the system of protective membranes is to radiolysis of water and hydrogen is formed. To neutralize this dangerous phenomenon and ensure the explosion safety of nuclear power plants use a variety of control systems and gas cleaning. The development of such systems is engaged in JSC “VNIIAES”, with rich experience in the direction of hydrogen energy and a large number of its own developments. Hydrogen is neutralized in various ways, but most often burned.

System “afterburning of hydrogen” is equipped with some nuclear power plants in the European part of Russia:
Kola NPP – 4 units;
Rostov NPP – 2 units;
Balakovo NPP – 4 units;
Novovoronezh NPP – 2 power unit;
Kalininskaya NPP – 3 units.

Apparently, the bright head of the atomic scientists solved this problem as well as the famous character of the film “Caucasian captive”: “Those who hinder us, and that will help us!”

Why unnecessarily burn hydrogen, the nuclear industry decided when it is possible to earn on its sale. Especially in Europe, now the demand is increasing year by year.

During 2019 in JSC “VNIIAES” the planned formation of the applications presented several avant-projects and elaboration of technical requirements technology generation, accumulation and transportation of hydrogen.

There will be the following innovative developments:
• MH thermosorption compressor with the hydrogen pressure at the outlet 80 MPa, and performance 108 нм3Н2/hour;
• electrolyzer-hydrogen generator performance 108 Nm3 H2/hour;
• installation of production materials (sorbents) with a capacity of 500 kg/day.;
• production unit methylcyclohexane hydrogenation of toluene and logistics centre the transport and delivery of products, VCEK (hydrogen/ oxygen) to the consumers and the hydrogen hub.

It should also be noted problem existing in power systems with the uneven schedule of load during the day. The peak load during the day alternate with recessions consumption at night. Switching part of the nuclear capacity to generate hydrogen during periods of decline in consumption, it will be possible to equalize the graphs of power consumption. Mode of operation with a uniform load distribution is the most preferred for all cash-generating electrical equipment.

In one of the projects is considering a possible reheating of the generating capacity of the plant in the European part of Russia for commercial production of hydrogen for the needs of consumers. For these purposes, is considered the Kola nuclear power plant and planned the commissioning of the FNPP (floating nuclear power plant) “Akademik Lomonosov”. In the summer of 2019 floating a plan to deploy off the coast of Chukotka, in the port of Pevek. It is planned that the NPP will be able to replace the two large power facility – Bilibino nuclear power plant and the Chaun thermal power plant.

FNPP “Academician Lomonosov” floating nuclear power plant

The statement said:

“Hydrogen can be used for charging of freight transport on hydrogen fuel elements as the coolant in the Autonomous production of heat and power for remote areas”.

As for the heat generated by the combustion of hydrogen with oxygen, it is worth noting the high temperature of combustion of this mixture (almost 3000 degrees Celsius) with the release of large amounts of energy (up to 24,000 j/G). This property applies when melting refractory metals, quartz, etc., to create alloys, cutting and welding metal. The combustion of hydrogen does not occur the formation of harmful substances, but produced only water.

Let us separately on hydrogen fuel cells to make the reader understand what was going on. Can you imagine a battery with infinite charge, which source of energy is not the components that make up the battery, and constantly flowing across it gases – hydrogen and oxygen. Inside the fuel cell is the oxidation reaction (2H2 + O2 → 2H2O) as a source of current is the movement of electrons in ionic environment. As the catalyst used here is the costly platinum, but soon scientists plan to substitute cheaper materials based on nanotechnology.

The fuel cell runs on hydrogen and oxygen

The main applications of hydrogen fuel cells

This is not fiction. A few years ago began the first serial production car running on hydrogen. The car had a hybrid Electrophotography “engine”. The energy produced through the oxidative reaction of hydrogen in an electrochemical generator. Instead of harmful exhaust – water.

Toyota Mirai – the production car running on hydrogen

Meet the Toyota Mirai (meaning “future”). Engine power 154 HP, torque of 335 Nm. Acceleration car from 0 to 100 km/h in just 9 seconds. Refueling with hydrogen takes up to 5 minutes. In the car with 2 high pressure cylinder with a capacity of 60 and 62.4 per liter of hydrogen. By the way, now almost every major car manufacturer conducts its development work on fuel cells. The main obstacle of development of this direction is the lack of a sufficient number of hydrogen filling stations, but that’ll come.

That’s how it looks in reality around the world.

Operate mobile hydrogen filling station (Australia)

The Germans even produced a baby kit H2-Sprinter, which is a set: racing car with a hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen gas station (electrolyzer) and a solar module that produces electricity for electrolysis.

Children poured from the tap water in a “gas” station, waited for the sun to do all the work, refueled and drove this car on hydrogen fuel.

Children play set H2-Sprinter

In America, the Hyundai company for promotional purposes, offering its customers in Tucson FCEV to fill up with hydrogen for free.

Hyundai Tucson FCEV on hydrogen

What we are again late for this “celebration of life”? Where is our development?

The Car “Antel”

A series of experimental car “Antel”: there was a national project with the participation of domestic research institutes and enterprises (OJSC “AVTOVAZ”, RSC “Energia” etc.). In the development of “Antel-1” on the basis of the VAZ-2131 all major components are designed, among other things, for “storms”, placed in the Luggage compartment. In addition to hydrogen, the car was located and oxygen cylinders, thus making the operation unsafe. Especially near the oxygen was still and the oil, increasing the risk of fire and explosion.

Auto 2131ТЭ Antel-1 fuel cell (the Moscow motor show 2001).

Next the car was developed on the basis of the VAZ-2111, but most importantly, got rid of the explosive oxygen tanks, replacing them with an air compressor. The car became much easier and improved their performance. Mileage up to 350 km, the maximum speed to 100 km/h. the Total volume of the hydrogen tanks, 90 l Maximum power electric motor is 90 kW.

2111ТЭ car “Antel-2” (Moscow motor show, 2003)

Rather, opponents of the project by the major oil companies or our worst friends – “Western partners”, although the formal funding of these developments at the WHA in 2004, was terminated because of “difficult financial situation”. And when, in 2005, changed the leadership of the automobile plant, the project “Antel” fully curtailed their activities.

Now we look with envy at foreign cars with hydrogen fuel cells, when they could get ahead at the time. Other countries have created trains, boats and even planes with hydrogen fuel cells. Yes, they are again ahead of us.

Our President recently spoke of the need for “technological breakthrough” in developing countries so as these technologies! If we won’t implement, it still does not stop the progressive development of hydrogen technologies across the globe. Still, I hope that we will not only sell to other countries your resources, hydrocarbon or hydrogen, and even themselves will be able to make full use of “high technology” of its own production.

Source

 

 

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