The “black myth” of the KGB, NKVD

Myths and facts about the role of the NKVD in the great Patriotic vojnicima the world want to impose the idea that the Soviet Union was no better than the Nazis. Myths about the bloody NKVD are the bricks of this big lie, designed so that ordinary people never will study archival documents…


The “black myth” of the security officers: NKVD troops in the Great Patriotic war

Author – Alexander Samsonov

One of the most famous “black myths” of the great Patriotic war” is the tale of “bloody” KGB (the NKVD, anewamerica, smershevtsy). They particularly honor the filmmakers. Few people been subjected to such large-scale criticism, humiliation, as security officers. The bulk of the population gets information about them only through the “popkultura,” the artwork first and foremost through the movie. Not a movie “about the war” without image, knocked out the teeth of honest officers (red army), cowardly and cruel NKVD-Cheka .

It is almost a compulsory program number is to show some villains from the NKVD, which sits in the rear (guarding prisoners are entirely innocent prisoners) and in the defensive squad, shot from guns and machine guns, unarmed (or with the “one rifle for three” of the red army). Here are just a few of such “masterpieces”: “the penal battalion“, “Saboteur“, “Moscow Saga“, “children of the Arbat“, “Cadets“, “Bless the woman“, etc., their number is multiplying every year. Moreover, these films show the best time, they gather a significant audience. It is a General feature of Russian TV – the best time to show turbidity and even outright abomination, and analytical programs, documentaries carrying the information for the mind, to put at night, when most working people are asleep. The only practical normal a film about the role of the “SMERSH” in the war – a film by Mikhail PtashukIn August 44-go…“, filmed on the novel by Vladimir Bogomolov,”the Moment of truth (August 44th)“.

Than are usually occupied by security officers in the movie? Yes, in fact, they fight the normal officers and soldiers in the way! As a result of viewing these films, the younger generation is not reading books (especially scientific), it seems that the people (the army) won despite senior management of the country and the punitive organs. You see, if underfoot were not confused by representatives of the NKVD and SMERSH were able to win. Moreover, the “bloody KGB” in 1937-1939 destroyed the “army color”, headed by Tukhachevsky. Security officer do not feed bread — let someone shoot under false pretenses. However, as a rule, the standard special person is a sadist, a complete scoundrel, a drunkard, a coward, etc. Another favorite move of the filmmakers is to show the security officer in the contrast. To this end, the film introduces a valiantly battling the commander (soldier), which strongly hinders the representative of the NKVD. Often this character of the convicted officers, or even “political”. It is hard to imagine a similar attitude to tankers or pilots. Although the soldiers and commanders of the NKVD and military intelligence is a military craft, without which no cost, no army in the world. It is obvious that the ratio of “scoundrels” and regular, normal people from these structures at least not less than in tank, infantry, artillery, etc. units. And it is possible that even the best, because is more rigorous selection.

Collective the active soldiers-saboteurs 88 th fighter battalion of the NKVD of Moscow and Moscow region — special bomb squad of the NKVD of Moscow and the Moscow region. In the fall of 1943 they were transferred to the specrate Control of the NKVD to protect the rear of the Western front, and on 6 March 1944, the majority of them joined the ranks of classified employees of the Intelligence Department of headquarters of the Western (24 April 1944 – the 3rd Byelorussian) front. Many have not returned from zafrontovym trip to East Prussia.

Defenders of the armed forces

In war information is of particular importance. From the more you know about the enemy and the less he about your armed forces, economy, population, science and technology, depends, you win or lose. The protection of information is engaged in counterintelligence. It happens that a single scout or spy of the enemy would harm much more than an entire division or army. Just one missed counter an enemy agent can obexmidlet a large number of people, lead to huge human and material losses.

If the army protects the people and the country, the counter-intelligence itself AMI and the rear. Moreover, not only protecting the army from enemy agents, but also maintains its combat readiness. Unfortunately, there is no escape from the fact that there are weak people mentally unstable, this leads to the desertion, the betrayal, the emergence of panic. Especially these phenomena are manifested in critical conditions. Somebody has to take systematic measures to combat such phenomena and act very tough, it is a war, not a resort. Such work is of vital importance. One time has not revealed a traitor or a coward can kill an entire unit to disrupt the execution of combat operations. So, by 10 October 1941, the operational barriers of special departments and defensive squads of the people’s Commissariat of internal Affairs (there were also detachments of the army, created after the order No. 227 of 28 July 1942) was detained 657364 fighters and commanders of red Army stragglers from their units or who had fled from the front. Of this number, the overwhelming majority were sent back to the front (in the opinion of the liberal propagandists, all of them would die). Was arrested 25878 persons: spies — 1505, saboteurs — 308, deserters — 8772, samostrelova — 1671 , etc., 10201 people were shot.

Counterintelligence and performed many other important functions: reveals enemy spies and agents in the front line, prepared and threw in the rear of the task force, led by the enemy radio games, giving them misinformation. The NKVD played a key role in organizing the guerrilla movement. Hundreds of guerrilla groups were created based on neglected in the rear of the enemy task forces. Smershevtsy had the operation during the Soviet offensive. So, on 13 October 1944, still held by the Germans entered Riga operative group UKR “SMERSH” of the 2nd Baltic front consisted of 5 security officers under the command of captain George. The task force had the task to capture the files and card files of German intelligence and counterintelligence in Riga, which the Nazi command were going to be evacuated during the retreat. Smershevtsy liquidated employees of the Abwehr and was able to hold out before joining the city advanced units of the red army.

The NKVD Sergeant Maria Semyonovna Ruhlin (1921-1981) with a submachine gun PPSH-41. He served from 1941 to 1945.


Archival data and facts refute widely launched in the turnover of the “black myth” that the NKVD and SMERSH indiscriminately the former prisoners wrote down in “enemies of the people”, and then were shot or sent to the GULAG. So, in A. V. Mezhenko brought interesting data in the article “Prisoners of war returned to the system …” (Military-historical journal. 1997, №5). In the period from October 1941 to March 1944, in special camps for former prisoners of war came 317594 people. Of them: 223281 (70,3%) was checked and sent to the Red Army; 4337 (1,4%) — to escort troops of the people’s Commissariat of internal Affairs; 5716 (1,8%) — in the defense industry; 1529 (0,5%) went to hospitals, 1799 (0,6%) died. In assault (penal) units sent 8255 (2,6%). It should be noted that contrary to the speculation of counterfeiters, the level of losses in penalty parts were quite comparable to conventional units. Were arrested — 11283 (to 3.5%). The remaining 61394 (19,3%) examination continued.

After the war, the situation has not fundamentally changed. According to the state Archives of the Russian Federation (GARF), which results in I. Pyhalov in the study of “Truth and lies about the Soviet prisoners of war” (Igor Pyhalov. The great war slander. M., 2006) to March 1, 1946 were repatriated Soviet citizens 4199488 (2660013 civilians and prisoners of war 1539475). The audit of civilians: 2146126 (80,68%) were sent to the place of residence; 263647 (9,91%) enrolled in labor battalions; 141962 (5,34%) drafted into the Red Army and 61538 (2.31 per cent) were located in refugee and transit points and used for work under Soviet military units and institutions abroad. Placed at the disposal of the people’s Commissariat of internal Affairs – only 46740 (1,76%). From among the former prisoners of war: 659190 (42,82%) were re-drafted into the red army; 344448 persons (22,37%) enrolled in labor battalions; 281780 (18,31%) sent to the place of residence; 27930 (1,81%) used for work at military units and institutions abroad. Was transferred to the disposal of the NKVD – 226127 (14,69%). As a rule, the NKVD passed Vlasov and other collaborators. So, according to the instructions, which were the chiefs of the verification bodies, the number of immigrants subject to arrest and trial: the leadership, the command structure of the police ROA national legions and other similar organizations, connections; members of listed organizations that participated in punitive operations; the former red army soldiers who voluntarily defected to the enemy; mayors, high officials of the occupation administration, officials of the Gestapo and other punitive and intelligence agencies, etc.

It is clear that most of these people deserved the most severe punishment, up to the highest measure. However, the “bloody” Stalin’s regime in connection with the Victory over the Third Reich had showed them leniency. Collaborators, executioners and traitors were released from criminal responsibility for treason, and it was limited to sending them to banishment for a period of 6 years. In 1952 a significant portion of them were released, and in their questionnaires means no criminal record, and work time during his exile was recorded in the seniority. In the GULAG sent only to those accomplices of the invaders, who have identified serious specific crimes.

The reconnaissance platoon 338-th regiment of the NKVD. Photos from the family archive of Nikolay Ivanovich Lobakina.

Nikolai on the front with the first days of the war, 2 times was in a penal battalion, had a few injuries. After the war, the troops of the NKVD eliminated bandits in the Baltic States and Ukraine.

At the forefront

The role of the parts of the NKVD in the war were not limited to performing highly specialized, professional tasks. Thousands of security officers have honestly fulfilled his duty to the end and died in battle with the enemy (during the war killed about 100 thousand soldiers of the NKVD). Took the first blow of the Wehrmacht in the early morning of 22 June 1941, the border units of the NKVD. Just this day the battle joined 47 ground and 6 naval detachments, 9 separate border commandant’s offices of the NKVD. The German command has allocated for overcoming their resistance half an hour. A Soviet border guards fought for hours, days, weeks, often completely surrounded. So, Zastava Lopatin (Volodymyr-Volyns’kyy border guard) 11 days repulsed the attacks of superior forces of the enemy. In addition to border guards on the Western border of the Soviet Union served connections 4 divisions, 2 brigades and several separate operational regiments of the NKVD. Most of these parts came into the fight with the first hours of the great Patriotic war. In particular, the personal composition of the garrisons, who were guarding the bridges, objects of special state importance, etc. Heroically fought the guards that protected the famous Brest fortress, including the 132-th separate battalion of the NKVD.

In the Baltic States on the 5th day of the war was formed on the 22nd motor rifle division NKVD, which fought in conjunction with the 10th rifle corps of the red army near Riga and Tallinn. In the battle of Moscow took part in seven divisions, three brigades and three of the armored troops of the NKVD. In the famous parade of November 7, 1941, he participated division. Dzerzhinsky, the combined regiments of the 2nd division of the NKVD separate motorized rifle brigade of special purpose and the 42nd brigade of the NKVD. Important role in the defense of the Soviet capital has played a Separate motorized rifle brigade of special function (OMSBON) people’s Commissariat of internal Affairs, which created minefields on the outskirts of the city, conducted sabotage behind enemy lines, etc. Separate brigade became the training center of training of recce-commando units (formed from NKVD, foreign anti-fascist volunteers and athletes). During the four years of war in the training center prepared for special programs 212 groups and units total number 7316 fighters. These compounds are held 1084 military operation, eliminated approximately 137 thousand of the Nazis, destroyed 87 of the leaders of the German occupation administration and 2045 German agents.

Distinguished enkavedeshniki and in the defense of Leningrad. Here fought the 1st, 20th, 21st, 22nd and 23rd divisions of internal troops. It NKVD troops played a crucial role in establishing communication between Leningrad and surrounded by a Large ground — in the construction of the Road of life. Forces of the 13th infantry regiment of the NKVD for months the first winter of the siege the Road of life was delivered in the city of 674 tons of various cargoes and removed from it more than 30 thousand people, mostly children. In December 1941, the 23rd division of the NKVD was given the task to guard the delivery of goods on the Road of life.

Noted soldiers of the NKVD and in the defense of Stalingrad. Initially, the main fighting force in the city was the 10th division NKVD total population of 7.9 million people. The division commander was Colonel A. Saraev, he was chief of the Stalingrad garrison and fortified. August 23, 1942, the regiments of a division kept the defense on a front of 35 kilometers. The division repulsed the attempts of the advanced parts of the German 6th army to take Stalingrad. The fiercest fighting was marked on the approaches to the Mamaev Kurgan, near the tractor plant and in the city centre. Before the withdrawal of the bloodless parts of the division to the left Bank of the Volga (after 56 days of fighting) the men of the NKVD caused significant damage to the enemy: it was wrecked or burned 113 tanks, eliminated more than 15 thousand soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. The 10th division received the honorary title of “Stalingrad” and was awarded the order of Lenin. In addition, in the defense of Stalingrad involved and other parts of the NKVD: 2nd, 79-th, 9-th and 98-th perranoski troops of the rear guard.

In the winter of 1942-1943 by the people’s Commissariat of internal Affairs was formed a Private army consisting of 6 divisions. In early February 1943 Separate army NKVD were transferred to the front, receiving the name of the 70th army. The army became part of the Central front, and then the 2nd and 1st Belorussian fronts. Soldiers of the 70th army showed courage in the battle of Kursk, among other forces CF by stopping the striking force of the Nazis that tried to break through to Kursk. Army NKVD distinguished in Orel, the Polesie, the Lublin-Brest, East Prussian, East Pomeranian and Berlin offensive operations. During the great war troops of the NKVD has prepared and delivered to the red Army from its membership of 29 divisions. During the war, 100 thousand soldiers and officers of the NKVD were awarded with medals and orders. More than two hundred people were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. In addition, internal troops of people’s Commissariat for the period of the great Patriotic war held 9 292 operation against the gang, which was eliminated 47 451 732 99 and captured the bandit, and just defused 147 183 criminals. Guards in 1944-1945 destroyed 828 gangs, totaling about 48 thousand criminals.

Many have heard about the feats of Soviet snipers during the great Patriotic war, but few know that most of them were from the ranks of the NKVD. Even before the war, NKVD units (units for the protection of important objects and escort troops) received sniper Department. According to some, the snipers of the NKVD during the war killed up to 200 thousand soldiers and officers.

Captured by the Germans banner 132 th battalion escort troops of the NKVD. Photo from the personal album of one of the soldiers of the Wehrmacht. In the Brest fortress defense two months kept the guards and the 132-th separate battalion escort troops of the NKVD of the USSR. In Soviet times, all remembered the inscription of one of the defenders of the Brest fortress: “Die, but do not give up! Goodbye Homeland! 20.VII.41G.“, but few knew that it was made on the wall of the barracks 132 th battalion escort troops of the NKVD of the USSR.”




The defenders of Stalingrad dedicated (10 DM BB NKVD)


The theory of delusion → Troops of the NKVD in 1941



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