People are ready to return to Russia

Academy of Sciences are crowded with idlers, killing science and requires more generatetime Sciences overflowing incapable bums who dream of carefree living and their number is constantly growing. But the main problem that drove science to a standstill, they are blamed for the shortage of funding…


Chereshnev: go to the West scientists are ready to return to the updated RAS

Author – Anna Urmantsev

The presidential candidate of the RAS Valery Chereshnev said about why the Russian Academy of Sciences did not have opportunities to implement new ideas, and explained what can attract Russian youth to science.

Brief biography

1. In the years 1988-2003 formed on the basis of the Institute of ecology and genetics of microorganisms, Perm scientific center of the Academy of Sciences and became its first Director in 2003, in Yekaterinburg was organized by the Institute of immunology and physiology, Ural branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, is currently its Director.

2. Since 1990 – head of the Department of Microbiology and immunology, biological faculty of Perm state University.

3 . Doctor of medical Sciences (1982), corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1990), academician (1997), member of the Presidium of the Ural branch of RAS (since 1997), Chairman of the UB RAS (1999-2008), Vice-President of Russian Academy of Sciences (1999-2001) and member of the Presidium of RAS (since 1999).

4. The Deputy of the State Duma of V and VI convocations, Chairman of the Committee on science and high technology (2007-2016).

5. In 2017, nominated for President of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Elections will be held on 25 September 2017.

Valery Alexandrovich! You remember that was “arranged” science in the USSR, while You have great experience in this field. How is it that the achievements of the Academy of Sciences, which existed for nearly 300 years, was fully impaired the last years of its existence?

In the 90 years the country fell apart, and the question arose: what to do with the USSR? One hundred and sixty thousand employees – it’s a huge army! There was a proposal to dissolve the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and form a new Russian Academy of Sciences. In the summer of 1991 was held the first election even now few remember this. And these elections were conducted in accordance with all other terms and conditions. Thus, with the participation of the scientific community were elected about 100 new first Russian academicians and corresponding members. The number of doctors was immediately elected to the Academy, although they could not obtain the status of member-correspondent years. A dangerous situation has emerged, when these academics were forced to save a very powerful structure with verified mechanisms of the organization, which was crumbling before their eyes.

V. A. Chereshnev (1971)

Was invented the concept of a smooth transformation of the USSR Academy of Sciences in new wounds. Yury Sergeevich Osipov actively undertook the management of this process. The newly elected along with former members of the USSR have become members of the Academy. Academics from the Soviet republics became foreign members. And really almost a decade has gone by just to survive, not allowing the devaluation of the meanings of academic science.

V. A. Chereshnev (1976)

– That is, in the 90s no new fundamental ideas could not emerge?

– Of course, they did. But it was very difficult to even try to implement them. At this time, there was a dramatic reduction in ministries and departments responsible for defense of the country. And most importantly – reduced the Ministry of medium machine building, which had a large number of industry institutions, just as, I remind you, there were more than six and a half thousand of such institutions. And in each from one to three thousand working professionals, with their experimental, industrial plants and manufacturing. For comparison: academic institutions of all six state academies, there were only about five hundred.

The Soviet Union was a million seven hundred thousand researchers, but now they are only a little over seven hundred thousand. Feel the difference?

The whole country was “wrapped in” knowledge-based technologies and app to production, to realize the idea of the Academy of Sciences. We just offer the idea and experimental design, and then we said, one of your the drug is now being developed in the Urals, and the other in Siberia, and so on. Now this powerful network of industry institutions only have a few hundred, however, operates 43 state scientific center.

V. A. Chereshnev (1996)

The Academy continued to offer ideas?

– Of course. But it is not needed. Why domestic cell phone? Buy everything abroad. Here the Finns are good at it cell phones, they the whole of Russia they can fill up. All the 90s and 2000s years, we have seen only one: “landing” of production from abroad. Kaluga became the automobile center BMW, Kaliningrad – the second center, Tolyatti buys a license of Renault. We are flooded with foreign developments in machine building, pharmaceuticals. For their own production of medicines requires the so-called clean room – there should not be even a speck of dust, and allergens. But such shops are prohibitively expensive! Of course, it is easier to buy the technology abroad. There is growing boom of microelectronics, and we even have to try elsewhere! There is no base!

V. A. Chereshnev (2009)

– And when the first questions to “do nothing” academics?

– Already in 2000-ies. Suddenly, our officials looked around and ask: where is our Academy of Sciences? Where are the new discoveries? Where our cell phone? Domestic computer? Give report for their practical products! It’s unusual for us, as directly practical products has always been involved in industry science. We say: now you do! Why not build a innovative belt? Why did not the production? And all these talks ended with the Russian Academy of Sciences are not needed at all. Let’s make a bet on the universities in the West.

V. A. Chereshnev and I. Alferov (2012)

– How do You assess the beginning of the reform: four years from 2013 to 2017?

– I think these years were needed in order to penetrate into what is called reform. And maybe before you begin, it was necessary carefully and to think thoroughly. Recall that in early June 2013, was elected the new President of the RAS, the new RAS Presidium and approved a Program of reforming the RAS, taking into account the proposals Alferov, Alexander Nekipelov A. D., V. E. Fortov. A month later, in late June, the government submits to the state Duma a new law on the RAS reform. Why so hurry? Why not discussed beforehand with the entire scientific community? Therefore, reforms and progress so difficult, and the ultimate goal they are not visible.

– It is clear that ran has made a commitment to our state, and you can be “held accountable”. But the state needs to be obligations to his wounds. Have they performed?

– This is an interesting question. For example, in accordance with the may decrees of the President of Russia Vladimir Putin 2012 on science in 2015 should have been financed at the level of 1.77% of GDP. And now we have only 1,15%. As you know, it is the failure of the decree of the President. Now, with regard to double salaries for researchers. How you can execute such a decree despite the fact that the government issued a lot less money? In fact the figure of 1.77 and salary, they are also associated! And we see a natural process: professors, receiving 30 thousand, transferred to a 0.25 rate – here is the implementation of the decree. It turns out that the state does not fulfill its part with itself, asks and asks only scientists.

– When You decided to move?

In January I was offered but I refused. Because it was put forward by V. E. Fortov, and I, as a member of the Presidium, supported him and also was responsible for the overall result. But when it all failed, I experienced several academics and said, “so we figured: you with their experience in the State Duma and so on would be useful. Come on!”. Indeed, I have extensive experience with the laws. I understand that if it is not something enshrined in law, anything to happen simply can not. For example, what is the scientific supervision? Nobody knows, it is necessary to paint. Nowhere is it written that FANO has to guide the work of the institutions. And in actual fact the way it is! They’re just the founders. I propose a dual Foundation: RAS + FANO.

– How are you going to attract young people?

– Everything is simple and not simple. The main thing – creation of conditions. If a young person comes in and sees the state of the art equipment that can do a lot on a global level, he is ready to work. But the time comes when he wants to create a family in 25-30 years, then, of course, the Academy of Sciences should provide an apartment. Here we are in the Urals, thanks to an investment project, built over 400 apartments for young scientists and solved the problem. Now to give the apartment there is nobody, no queues.

V. A. Chereshnev (2017)

I am a supporter of the academic organization of science. I am absolutely clear that in the year 293 of the Academy of Sciences confirmed their effectiveness and do not interfere with development of the academic system, building financing other participants in the scientific process. Why can’t we “do science” together with the universities? In the defense industry have poured money and please all flies, swims and shoots. Why not the same “experiment” to put on the science? If we do this, we will be able to recover. Our domestic scientists that once left, ready to go. Let me explain. I am familiar with many of our former compatriots, the current leaders of the Russian megagrants. Many of them say that if it was established the same conditions for scientific work, as in “mega-grant system”, they would have worked in Russia.




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