22 Mar 1842 born Ukrainian composer, pianist, choral conductor Mykola Lysenko. He is considered the founder of Ukrainian national music.
Nikolay Lysenko wrote music for choral composition, which became the spiritual anthem of Ukraine – “God, the great one”. One of the first interpreted Kobzar Shevchenko, made arrangements of folk songs, author of 10 operas (among them “the night before Christmas”, “Drowned”, “Natalka Poltavka”, “Taras Bulba”, “Eneida“) and hundreds of other musical works.
Issued in 1950-1959 years of a 20-volume collection does not contain all of the composer’s legacy.
Mykola Lysenko was called the Hetman, the sun and the father of Ukrainian music.
We have collected interesting facts about the composer.
Taught to read FET
Mother Lysenko came from a Cossack family Bolubash. Her ancestor of the Turks, escaped to the camp. My mother’s uncle, Nicholas Bulubasa belonged to the village of Hryn’ky, where the future composer was born. In the courtyard of the uncle had two old Cossack cannon which saluted on holidays. In this environment, all knew each other, neighbours were often relatives.
The father of Mykola Lysenko commanded a squadron of cuirassier in the shelf, standing at the Kremenchuk district. That regiment served Russian poet Athanasius FET.
“First, the education of our composer was given to the aristocratic way: pure French language, refined manners, dancing, the ability to stay relaxed in the living room-that’s what was required from a child … Known the poet FET even blamed the mother Lysenko that she taught her son the alphabet, first the French, and set himself to teach him Russian. So the lessons of the FET makes his students to write letters with a pencil, the latter accosted the officers with a request to give a pencil, and called him in the regiment “a Pencil,” recalled Mikhail staritskiy
Are the officers taught him how to stay in the saddle. He soon showed an ear for music: when the regimental band was out of tune, the kid fled, covering his ears. Mother played the piano, and he with her four hands.
Preferred to speak French than in Russian
The house father spoke Ukrainian. And the mother, though a native of Poltava, a graduate of the St. Petersburg Smolny Institute, the language forgotten, could not pronounce “Palyanitsa”. That they were with Nikolai spoke only French, he didn’t want in Russian. Subsequently, both became famous, for the sake of it switched to Ukrainian, but so clumsily that Lysenko laughed:
“Mother, do not torment Ukraine!”
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First fell in love with a couple Starytsky
About the first love of Mykola Lysenko left the memories the writer Mykhailo Starytsky. The guy was orphaned early and grew up in the family of his uncle Vitaliy Romanovich Lysenko – father of Nicholas. The latter was his second cousin.
On vacation after 5th grade of the gymnasium Lysenko and Staritsky fell in love with the same girl. She stayed on a nearby farm. Flirty blonde named Thekla. May was Polish but wrote staritskiy, “the Russian language is owned well and eyes better.” Jealousy between the guys was not, and together they made a plan how to win her heart. Decided that Nicholas will write the music and Michael the lyrics. And then will sing their work, having a good baritone. And so they did. The song ended with the words:
Give me a single kiss
At our heart Madrigal!
When parents weren’t home, young gentleman begged the coachman to harness the horses and in front of the gymnasium uniform – a red collar with gold embroidery went to the Thekla. She was sitting on a farm one – the owners go somewhere. Guys after tea was successfully published their joint work.
The reward points handed them both hands for a kiss. “I guess we kissed them longer than expected, – admitted then Staritsky, because the Basque said, “Enough! More – if we deserve!” But left them to spend the night at the farm in the morning to go on a picnic to the Dnieper. The guys did not sleep – sharing experiences and plans for tomorrow. “The second time such a thrill of unearthly bliss in life is not repeated,” – says Mykhailo Starytsky.
It was heard by Lesya Ukrainka
When and Lysenko, and Staricka lived in Kiev, the old neighborhood relations and supported here. Settled in the area where the street Tarasovskaya and Mariinsko-Annunciation – the current Saksaganskogo. Nearby lived a family Kosachev. Larissa Kosach – Lesya Ukrainka – taught to play piano by Olga, the wife of Lysenko. And he still had the crown at the wedding of Lesja’s mother, in the literature known under the pseudonym Olena Pchilka.
The Pchilka tells a story from the time when in Ukrainian culture began to gain momentum modernism. Somehow the composer asked Lesya Ukrainka to write a poem to his cantata on the death of Taras Shevchenko. Les couldn’t stand to write poetry “on occasion”, and here Lysenko – the Patriarch. Yes, and demanded that the poem began with the words “Died and our father left us.”
“When this has been!” said Lesya.
Nikolay Vitalievich very seriously replied that this loss has no Statute of limitations. And Les after beginning the poem with the line – though someone else would refuse.
Chose Ukraine instead of Russia and Europe
After training in a natural branch of physical-mathematical faculty of Kharkov University for the year transferred to Kiev. He received the degree of candidate of natural Sciences, but was earning as a music teacher. In 1867 he began to study as a pianist at the Leipzig Conservatory, which was one of the best in Europe. Tuition paid 80 thalers a year. While Dutch shirt cost 2 thalers, Burgundy – 1 Taler, two-bedroom apartment – 9 thalers a month, and the hire of a Grand piano – 4 thalers per month.
He graduated from the Conservatory, having a 4-year course in just two years. In the feature, attached to the final certificate, says: “Mr. Lysenko, with his exemplary thoroughness and remarkable talent, made excellent progress and is a pianist, virtuoso technique, and a distinctive, sublime and spiritually inspire, the implementation of which are far beyond what is usually required from students.”
Lysenko, as a pianist, was promised a brilliant future in Germany, but he went to Ukraine.
In 1874 enters the Petersburg Conservatory in the class to internationally recognized in this field master N. Rimsky-Korsakov, from which he graduated in 1876.
“… Lessons from Rimsky-Korsakov has increased his musical erudition and revealed to him new mysteries of sound compositions. Petersburgers even offered Lysenko the post of conductor at the private Opera, with the prospect of transition to the Imperial stage … But Lysenko was drawn back home longing for home,” recalls Staritsky.
His first wife lived for 12 years
Parents of Olga O’connor – the first of the composer’s wife – the landlords of Scottish-French descent. Lived not far from Lysenko in Nikolaevka, now Frunzivka Globinsky district, Poltava region. It and the couple was married in July, 1868. “Olga was… very pretty, smart, sharp and extremely alive. Liked me during the period of my departure abroad to the Conservatory. Home-sick, I began to write to Olga. That’s the beginning of hymen! Arriving in the summer on vacation, I adjusted Olga (I’ve always been somewhat shyly), explain,” said Lysenko in 1908.
They are Olga lived for 12 years, but had no children. Obviously, therefore, dispersed. Unofficially, because then it was a difficult process, the court would require to call “guilty”. They both didn’t want to. Just ceased to live together and have maintained a good relationship. I think that the song “When part two of” in the words of Heinrich Heine Lysenko is dedicated to Olga O’connor.
In General, the first wife has dedicated 11 works, including an arrangement of a Ukrainian folk song “Oh, the mountain Cossack water is …”
The second bore 7 children
His second wife was Olga again – from the Chernigov kind Lipsky (1860-1900). She wanted him to learn to play the piano – for entry into the Conservatory. He put a pupil in his house on Khreshchatyk, 41 – opposite the present Store. This house has not been preserved. In the Conservatory she never did. Lysenko gave birth to seven children. Survived 5. Died 1900 at the birth of the last – Taras. Lysenko said that the guy is very similar to the mother, especially the eyes. Because they lived unwed, children, according to the then custom, not to be seen as legitimate. But Olga O’connor – married wife – provided all necessary evidence and documents to Nikolay Vitalievich could “adopt” their children.
The second wife did not devote a single work.
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Last love – younger than 44 years old schoolgirl
In his later years he had another affair – with the youngest at 44 years Inna Andrianopoli. I saw it in the Institute for noble maidens: She was in College, and he taught music. Relations developed primarily epistolary. Correspondence first walked through a cool lady Madame Zhuravskaya. “I’m a man not young, but don’t want to say that the old soul, spirit, beliefs, activities, I will not surrender and will not surrender until at least one drop of blood goes through my heart,” wrote Inna Lysenko.
They lived unwed.
The choir is busy with life
In 1902-m starts trip to Ukraine, the Lysenko choir of 36 singers and two soloists. In December 1903 the solemn celebration of the 35th anniversary of creative activity of Lysenko in Kiev lasted three days. Then, with the participation of the composer, continued in Lviv. Next year, the money raised for his anniversary, Lysenko opened her own music and drama school that had a program of higher education. Under the school removed the house of Professor Ivan Sikorsky, the father of aircraft engineer Igor Sikorsky, on Pidvalna street, 1, modern Yaroslaviv Val. The house was not preserved. School after the death of Lysenko bore his name, and then on its basis created the Kiev Conservatory and the Kiev theatrical Institute.
Buried on the 5th day
Died Mykola Lysenko suddenly. In September 1912, the year his friend, Professor Christel, warned that the heart of the composer in precarious state. And on the morning of October 24, Nikolay Vitalievich going to go into a music and drama school – and then had a heart attack. Half an hour later, the Maestro did not. Olena Pchilka recalled that after death his face still some time remained a living expression of regret and sorrow. Subsequently, it fell and the face of the deceased was strict. Buried on the fifth day we were waiting for will come from relatives, children and numerous delegations from all over Ukraine. At Baikove cemetery the coffin was accompanied by thousands of people, several choruses. When the procession went past the theater Vasylkivska Sadovsky, present Operetta, the orchestra played a Funeral March Lysenko.
Ukrainian teacher Sofia Rusova remembered it like this:
“Was typical of the Creator. He loved music, he loved Ukraine. And this is the last sense won the first. He set a goal to serve the Ukrainian music, and therefore wrote only in Ukrainian texts and did not agree to their transfer to Moscow language. So it was not put Opera on the Russian stage, and not being required at the time of the Russian approbation, lay in the composer until his death or was present on the Ukrainian scene, with far inappropriate and not connoisseurs of music.”