In the USSR gave and took bribes

In the USSR all the years flourished corruptionprone widespread in the USSR was created and managed from Moscow. In the regions was created and debug of a criminal financial scheme, the proceeds from which flowed to Moscow. Differently and could not be the Supreme guide always around the head…


Corrupt judges and the Republican clans in the USSR took and gave bribes

The Author – Sergey Kharlamov

Corruption in Russia has always existed. And even capital punishment are not protected from abuse of officials. In a society in which all were equal, there was always someone who wanted to stand out. When the power showed political will and desire to eradicate extortion and bribery, the corruption acted like a criminal gang, cover each other, bribed judges and removed investigators. And still some tricky chains to untangle possible. Ruposters talks about high-profile corruption cases in the USSR.

The fate of ships

Courts in the Soviet Union changed seriously and often. After the events of 1917 in the judiciary was dominated by revolutionary consciousness . This often imposed an absurd sentences for killing “bourgeois” – a public reprimand, and for refusing to go to work – execution. Over time the judiciary has become a tool of those in power and their political importance has changed.

The situation was serious when every officer was obliged to befriend any judge to hold his position and move on. First, the judge turned a blind eye to minor economic disruption, but the outbreak of war the situation is out of control – in an unexpected way closed cases of serious offences, and judges receive tens of thousands of rubles (the average salary in the country – 150 rubles) and scarce products in large quantity.

“The police Department of the Rivne region arrested for bribery of the former. the investigator of Prosecutor’s office of Rivne city Masina. It is established that Masina had received a bribe from the Director of the state mill N3 Rivne of Vyuka – 470 kg of flour for the failure of his trial in the case on the embezzlement of flour; from the owner’s private cupboard in the mountains. Exactly Bannikova – 8,000 rubles for the termination of the case causing them severe wounds count, well Nasenkov and the deserter Coastal – 4000 rubles for the termination on it of the case…”

By 1950 the number of briberies grew to incredible proportions. A stream of complaints against judges was so huge that it became difficult to ignore and blame on “dissatisfaction with the verdict.” In addition, many complaints went straight to Moscow and was provided with very accurate descriptions of the abuses of judges. In the CPSU(b) established the Commission of Party Control, which at the time was headed by Andrey Andreev, and she began to travel to the republics. First in line was the Bashkir SSR:

“In the process, the Commission found that a number of employees of the Supreme court of Bashkiria, namely the members of the Supreme court Mr. Karimov, Gilmanov, Deputy Chairman of the Supreme court Amirkhanov abused official position, took bribes and is freed from the punishment of criminals, drunk together with convicted and prosecuted.

The Chairman of the Supreme court of Bashkortostan of Hasanov and Minister of justice Asanov, having the signals of the facts immoral phenomena and abuse among the employees of the Supreme court, felt that the liberal and jammed the signals.

The regional Committee of the CPSU(b) decided to withdraw from the work of the Chairman of the Supreme court Bashkir ASSR Ananova <…> Minister of justice BASSR T. Asanova reprimanded”, – from the decision of the Commission.

Checks began to be held almost everywhere. In Moscow was arrested 111 people, including 28 judges. Including the Chairman of the Moscow city court Vasnev. With his arrest came to light chain crimes that have occurred over the years.

Hearings in the 50’s…

The bribes were connected, and some even lived together. The famous episode, which featured a member of the Moscow court Chursina. While staying with Wasnever in one apartment, Chursina participated in many of his crimes, and organized their. For example, from punishment for the bribe they released the Director “Movinator” Nikolaev, who bribed all the judges hearing his case. In the evening after the meeting Chursina and other members of the College were at the Nikolaev house where drank the rest of the night.

For half a year, the Commission reached the Supreme court, found there the same as in the republics. Moreover, the Supreme court had the practice of direct transfer of criminal cases without the involvement of the Supreme courts of the republics. Thus it was considered 2925 from 5596 cases that have tested the Board (and it is only in 1947). Moreover, the vast majority of these cases, the Supreme court acquitted or a reduced sentence.

Different trial formulations were carried out very different sentences for similar cases, records and proceedings was violated. The bailiffs took out the documents from the courts, were examined in non-judicial areas in the presence of unauthorized persons.

The result of this extensive testing was the removal of the Chairman of the Supreme court of the USSR of Ivan golyakova and head of the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Soviet Vasily Ulrich “for the loss of a sense of party responsibility,” and with them removed another 40 people from the staff of the Supreme court. The investigation was strictly classified. It is known that cases have created three special place of presence of the armed forces of the USSR, the meeting was held behind closed doors without the participation of the parties. The results were also classified.

Vasily Ulrich (mid) before the war was one of the organizers of Stalinist repression…

However, not all removed from office convicted. The same Ulrich was just transferred and became head of the Supreme military law courses at the Military Academy of law. He died in 1951. Golyakov lived until 1961 and managed to write over 70 scientific monographs.

The Azerbaijani precedent

By the end of the 60s in the country took shape and worked properly a clan system of checks and balances. The Central office knew of the Republican elite, was able to raise some and keep others. However, the control lever was just corruption. On the one hand, Moscow has always been dirt on the major players in the republics, on the other – thanks to this support, the elite strengthened their positions.

The need for “cleaning” originated because of fears of Brezhnev in the acceleration of centrifugal forces in the regions. To help Andropov was sent to the head of the Azerbaijan KGB Semyon Tsvigun. He was able to link the work of the party’s intelligence and capabilities of the KGB, strengthening the surveillance of the Republican elites.

Heydar Aliyev

Relying on the knowledge and experience gained over 4 years working for the KGB of Azerbaijan, he put the head of the KGB in the Republic, Heydar Aliyev, and gave him access to information about corrupt ties. First, Aliyev just settled in a new place and enjoyed the fact that no one knew him in person:

“In the first months of his leadership of the Aliyev put the fear in the trading range of Baku. Using the fact that in the face of his little known, Aliyev began to launch guerrilla attacks in the city. Get dressed easier, out of the house and sit in the first of his taxi. Chose the longest route to speak with the driver about life: how people live, than unhappy with what most complain about. Or go into a store and asks the seller: “How much meat?”. “Two rubles forty kopecks!”. Why, he asks, is it so expensive? The sellers shoulders shake. He went on straight to the warehouse or in the back room, where, as a rule, discovered substantial deposits of food shortage. In General, for two or three weeks of these raids for “tip-off” Aliyev was arrested about 40 people,” Razzakov Fedor, “the red Uzbek”.

The attacks had to stop after two months. Someone duplicated his pictures, so that looks like the head of the local KGB, knew every seller vodka. It is assumed that the customers were representatives of the so-called Shushi clan, on whose shelves and warehouses were dealt major blows Aliyev. The head of the KGB referred to the economic backwardness (the Republic did not fulfill any of the five-year period from the end of the war), but it is still accused of covering up another group.

For a while Aliyev was recalled to Moscow, but he soon returned. And revealed large-scale corruption scheme in the Azerbaijan SSR the highest offices could be just to buy. Prices in the Republic have ranged from 200 thousand rubles for the position of 1st Secretary of the party Committee of up to 30 thousand for the office of the Prosecutor. You could buy the position of head of the police Department, to become the Minister of public utilities, the rector of the University.

Aliyev appointed, who are affected by this corruption scheme, employees of KGB – all 1983 cases, and confused maps clans – top positions were appointed by the Russian, Baku, Nakhichevan, came from Shamakhy and Armenia.

Thread cotton

Known in the Soviet Union “Cotton case”, revealed numerous abuses and economic crimes of the leaders of the Uzbek SSR, originates from the defeat of the judicial system. In 1975, in the case of bribery was arrested and brought to justice President of the Supreme court of the Uzbek SSR. Then in sight of the investigators got Yadgar nasriddinova, who had to visit the post of the head of the armed forces and by the time headed the Council of nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. But familiarity with Brezhnev had saved her from prosecution.

The investigation team gives an interview on the background of the seized money and jewelry…

A series of criminal cases, which is considered as “cotton fever” began with the arrest of the head of the Department for combating theft of socialist property Bukhara region Muzaffarova. Investigators caught him “on live bait”: to give a bribe of one thousand rubles was operative.

The thousand led to untold wealth – a search Muzaffarova found cash in the amount of 1 183 131 rubles, rare gold coins and jewelry, jewelry and jewelry in the amount of one and a half million rubles. Photos of “gold” was shown all over the country, and the values showed the top officials at the meetings as a Museum piece.

With the death of Brezhnev for investigators and KGB has opened up new opportunities. The investigation of the case Muzaffarova started a new investigator for particularly important cases under the Prosecutor General of the USSR Telman Gdlyanthat untwist chain until the 1-St Secretary of the Communist party of Uzbekistan Rashidov, head of the agricultural Association Adilova and a number of Uzbek party leaders and Ministers.

Gdlyan (left) and Ivanov in Tashkent…

In 1983 Andropov made Rashidova “final offer” by declaring him a talking-to, suggesting that the Secretary of peace would resign. But Rashid has not left. After a month of silence Andropov ordered the Prosecutor’s office to create a Commission of inquiry on the case of abuse of the Uzbek SSR. The Commission was headed by Gdlyan and Ivanov, from Moscow, they were in charge of Herman Karakozov – organizer of all major cases of bribery in the 70-80-ies in the USSR:

“Great “chopper” was the head of the investigative unit of the Prosecutor’s office of the Union Herman p. Karakozov. Here he could use. Comes people talking. So he pricked his authority, logic, conviction, generals ‘epaulets, a situation”, – the deserved lawyer of Russia Vasily Pobega.

Sharaf Rashidov

Six months later, in that same year, 1983, Rashidov died. According to some, it was a suicide. After his death, was arrested several executives of the cotton companies and Directors of cotton mills, including Ahmadjon Adylov, godfather agricultural mafia, the “king” of Namangan region. The investigation revealed that Adylov was the right hand of Rashidov and actually engaged in recruitment in the higher echelons of the Republican government. In Tashkent there arrived the staff of the CPSU Central Committee, headed by Ligachev:

“Seen in E. Ligachev was a special mission to convert the Plenum into a bunch antirassistische content, something like the twentieth Congress of the CPSU. From beginning to end, all speakers who have recently pledged allegiance to his memory, his ink, exposing him as a despot, corrupt, bribe, causing irreparable damage to the Uzbek people. He was accused of harassment of honest people who dared to tell him the truth, the establishment of the Republic of the situation of servility and bootlicking, nepotism. The speech of speakers was prepared by the speechwriters from Moscow. The performance was a success. Rashidov was toppled from the pedestal of hero and leader, unselfish, and incorruptible, and at the same time the investigation team were given a powerful moral weapon fighters against the “Rashidovna”” – from the memoir, “Conscience and justice”.

With the arrest Adilova the arrests began, the police Department of the region, and the testimony of heads of Department has led the investigation to the head of the interior Ministry Lieutenant General Ergashev. He learned about the impending arrest and was shot before the advent of outfit. During a search of his caches found 10 million rubles in cash and documents certifying that the leadership of the interior Ministry in full force was corrupt.

In the “Cotton business” began to appear and the first victim of the investigation. Deputy Ergasheva Davydov was found with three fatal bullet wounds in the head. Death was classified as suicide.

The investigators one by one to locate the hiding places of corrupt officials scattered throughout the local villages. The price of jewelry only one group of caches reached 10-15 million rubles.

By 1985 it became clear that the “Cotton case” may not only relate to one Republic. Gdlyan and Ivanov came to the conclusion about the existence of organized community party leadership, the Central MVD and the Soviet mafia.

By the time was completed the information gathering, the General Secretary of the Central Committee was Gorbachev. The Secretary General was horrified findings and sent to Tashkent Boris Yeltsin. In September 1985, he brought a report on the massive corruption and supported investigators.

But Gorbachev did not believe in the facts involved in the report. The report was in the hands of the journalist, Ovcharenko from the “Truth”, which has published article “Cobra on gold”, presenting the citizens of the USSR the facts of criminal activity of heads of Uzbekistan. The article launched a series of revelations of party leaders and severely weakened the power of the Kremlin.

Gdlyan (middle), Ivanov and Yeltsin…

In Uzbekistan began a new wave of arrests, which led to Moscow. Under the supervision of the investigation were the Secretary of the CPSU Razumovsky, head of agriculture Istomin, as well as Ligachev, Solomentsev, Smirnov and Ishkov – all members of the Politburo. All these people took bribes from Rashidov and other leaders of Uzbekistan.

Central Committee decided to stop the activities of the investigation team. Already removed (together with Karakozov) to the point of too cruel methods and “enforcement of the party’s order, and the rule of law” Gdlyan came under investigation. The Plenum of the Supreme Court of the USSR issued a special decree “on violations of legality” Gdlyan.

By the time Gdlyan and Ivanov have become people’s deputies of the USSR, therefore, for initiating a case against them, a Commission was established, the result of which Gdlyan was expelled from the Communist party and the USSR Prosecutor’s office. The criminal case against him was discontinued in 1991.

Fish thing

Simultaneously with the “Cotton affair” in the country investigated two, as it later turned out, linked by a series of cases.

In the late ‘ 70s was arrested by Deputy Minister of fisheries of the USSR Rytov, and shortly before that – the General Director Trading-industrial firm “Ocean” Feldman and his subordinate, the chief of one of shops of the company Fishman.

A branch of the shop “Ocean” in Sochi…

Feldman and Fishman arrested for the withdrawal of capital abroad. They were preparing their departure from the Union, took out hundreds of thousands of rubles and exchanged them for currency. Those arrested have given all whom they bribed, and at the same time told where they have such money:

“They told about the system of bribery in the Ministry of fisheries. In front of us first then put another task – to deal with this trifle, but to go with access to most major Ministry leaders and above. This was the situation when the us was not forbidden in the interrogatories and the statements mention the names of any persons described defendants or suspects,” said Kalinichenko.

Following the arrested revealed the debugged scheme of peregazovki black caviar in cans of sardines. For untangling the tangle of relationships Andropov has established a special Committee to the KGB, which began the so-called “fish thing”.

It all started with the fact that the Minister of fisheries Alexander Ishkov convinced the Chairman of the Council of Ministers Alexei Kosygin that selling your own products can bring profit to the country, and asked him to transfer responsibility for the sale of fish keeping. Was created Soyuztransit, the chief of which put Yuri Rogov, and the curator did Vladimir Rytov.

Vladimir Rytov opened the shop “Ocean” (the first branch in Sochi), the equipment purchased in Spain. Across the country have become a popular “fish Thursdays”.

It quickly spun, thanks to the accurate testimony of Feldman and Fishman. Everything pointed to Vladimir Rytov, which subordinates named “Boatswain”. According to the new prisoners, the Boatswain was the organizer of the packaging of caviar.

Hearing about the “fish mafia”…

Have Rytova when arrested, seized 300 thousand rubles. Despite the fact that he repented and handed over the whole distribution network of caviar and fish, he was sentenced to death.

Double chain

But where is the link to another big case? “Fish thing” revealed a scheme of fraud in the first of the Sochi branch of the “Ocean”, whose Director was Arsene Pruidze, who was arrested for bribery personally Rutovu. Was followed by numerous arrests of other Sochi officials, chiefs of health centers, Director of Myasorybtorg and others.

Soon the investigation came to the Chairman of Sochi city Council Voronkova. Pruidze admitted that he was bribed and Voronkov, Deputy Chairman Alexander Frozen confirmed this fact. Voronkova but found nothing, besides honestly earned 10 thousand rubles. Voronkova was taken into custody and taken to Moscow, put him in solitary confinement in Lefortovo:

“In Sochi started to panic. In the course went the widely known techniques of corrupt groups. They tried to prove that the testimony of the accused on bribery serious attention do not deserve to give their people “a long time in detention and under conditions of isolation.” This phrase will be too late to beat Medunov in public speeches, in the press, in memoranda to the Central Committee of the Communist party” – Kalinichenko.

In the course of the preliminary investigation die Adler Chairman of the Executive Committee, and investigators are accused of incitement to suicide. To begin checking, not found in the actions of the investigators of the facts of excess of powers of office.

Sochi, an investigation was made and the 1st Secretary Sergei Medunov, who until recently led the Kuban and incredibly raised the resort area. Under his leadership Kuban entered the top ten most developed regions in the Soviet Union, while the volume of agricultural products in General were in the first place.

Sergey Medunov

Medunov was a confidant of Brezhnev, and only his acquaintance with the Secretary, and that he did not give a confession against his former boss, helped him to avoid punishment. Medunov, which was already by that time the Minister of agriculture has charged that under his leadership Kuban corruption is thriving.

Seriously ill Brezhnev could do nothing in this situation, and Medunov was removed from office in 1982. He took an ordinary job in the Ministry of fruit and vegetable farms, died alone in 1999 in Moscow.

Voronkova was sentenced to 13 years imprisonment with confiscation of property. After the collapse of the USSR rehabilitated, because the materials of the criminal cases of bribery have disappeared. He died in October 2009.




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