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How Putin dealt with the seven bankers

How Putin broke the oligarchs stranglehold on the neck of Russia called “seven bankers”To the end of the 90s, the real power was in the hands of a handful of roguish Jewish bankers – stooges of the West, the powers of the President was nominal. In such circumstances, Putin was able to disperse these thieves, don’t let them destroy Russia…

 

How Putin dealt with the “seven bankers”

The Author Is A Parishioner

Now, on the eve of the next presidential election, I want to remind who forgot to tell who did not know – those who are not caught dashing 90 – that, of what we have left. I read some authors and commentators and the feeling from talking with some actors that fell just yesterday from the moon. I want to bring them back to earth. So I apologize in advance to those who during the last three decades, this land has not left, but the memory about 90 years is not lost. Memory is also sometimes useful to refresh .

So, what got Putin came to the leadership of failing in the eyes of the country with a ruined and plundered the economy? And he got the powers of the presidency, which at that time was the power of purely nominal (perhaps because not afraid it to him).

The real power in the country belonged to a unique entity called “seven bankers”

The term “seven bankers” was introduced on 14 November 1996, journalist Andrew Fadini (died November 19, 1997), published in the “General newspaper” article “seven bankers as a new Russian variant of the Council of seven”.

List of bankers in the article was based on an interview given on 1 November 1996 Boris Berezovsky Gaza, those Financial Times, where he called the names of the seven persons controlling more than 50 % of the Russian economy and jointly influence the adoption of important political decisions in Russia, (the so-called oligarchs), who played a significant political and economic role, owned media, and the informal United, despite internal divisions, to ensure the re-election of B. N. Yeltsin for another term in the presidential election of 1996:

1. Boris Berezovsky – LogoVAZ

2. Mikhail Khodorkovsky – Group Rosprom (Menatep)

3. Mikhail Fridman – Alfa Group

4. Petr Aven – Alfa-Group

5. Vladimir Gusinsky Bridge Group

6. Vladimir Potanin – ONEKSIMBank

7. Alexander Smolensky of SBS – agro (Bank Capital)

8. Vladimir Vinogradov – Inkombank

9. Vitaly Malkin , a Russian loan

By the middle of 1990-x years in the banking ranks were determined by “group leaders”, which were, according to various estimates, from 10 to 15 the biggest credit organizations in Russia. By the time the Bank acquired not only economic but also political weight: gained control over the mass media, learned how to shape public opinion, etc.

The presidential campaign of 1996 was a new stage of rapprochement between big business and government. In March 1996, President Boris Yeltsin met with group of banking leaders, who pledged to Finance the election campaign of the President in exchange for future concessions.

27 April 1996, the media published a letter of large Russian businessmen “to Leave deadlock!”, later called “Letter of 13”. Thirteen businessmen who signed the appeal, aimed primarily presidential candidates Boris Yeltsin and Gennady Zyuganov, called for an end to the danger of the collapse of the economy.

As followed from the text, to reduce the risk is possible only with the help of “a political compromise that can prevent acute conflicts that threaten the basic interests of Russia, its statehood” between the main participants of the presidential race. Evidence of the existence of the “seven bankers”, according to media, was created by the Central Bank on 25 July 1996 the special operational management for large and socially significant banks (the OPERA-2).

Until August 1998, the government relied on the support of a half dozen credit institutions. The meeting of bankers with the President and key Ministers were regular. After the presidential elections of 1996, having made impossible, not sparing even arrested and put into the budget boxes with the “black cash”, the oligarchs sent in the power of his representative, Vladimir Potanin in August, becoming the first Vice Prime Minister, supervising the economic block. It should be noted that previously it was Vladimir Potanin has developed and offered the leadership of the country the concept of mortgaging auctions. Then it was a popular spell in the country’s leadership must be more rich people – they have no need to steal!

It is quite clear that having that kind of power voluntarily, it does not leave. They were not going. But Putin, joked among his colleagues that “special operation on introduction of the Russian presidency is successful”, there were several other plans. For many caught unexpected.

Chronicles equidistant of oligarchs from power

“A lot of pressure from the authorities business in 2000 felt. Only two victims, and they are obsessed with politics , Berezovsky and Gusinsky, “recalls now a well-known businessman. The Berezovsky back then believed that Putin is obliged to plant, as it deems rational.

There can not be any economic progress if the official is dependent on capital

25 February 2000 presidential candidate Vladimir Putin has formulated a new course in relations with business. Three days later, at a meeting with his Trustees, he continued the theme of “equidistant position of all market entities from the government”, thereby giving the name to the new course – “equidistance of oligarchs”. Then the oligarchs could not imagine how rapidly and decisively the new government will start clearing out their “arms.”

Four days after Putin’s inauguration, may 11, 2000, passed searches in “Media-the bridge” to Vladimir Gusinsky, and on 13 June 2000 the head “Media-the Bridge” was arrested on suspicion of embezzlement of state property in especially large sizes.

On 17 may, the Central Bank introduced a temporary administration in the Bridge-Bank. Less than a month later Gusinsky was in Butyrka. However, on June 16, the media tycoon was released and took on his own recognizance. After that, he disappeared and was declared internationally wanted. Gusinsky was suspected of committing a crime under article 159 of the criminal code (fraud). The case was investigated directly by the General Prosecutor’s office. According to the official report, “the consequence considers that as a result of a number of illegal actions Gusinsky, along with some heads of the Federal state enterprise “Russian state company “Russian video”,” seized from the state-owned assets with value of not less than ten million dollars”.

The European court of human rights in 2004 issued a decision on the complaint Gusinsky: the Court decided that, although the suspicion in committing a crime and had a Foundation in fact, however, Gusinsky was unlawfully deprived of his liberty, It says that the charges against him were such grounds, which are unable to close their eyes even less able blind European justice.

Boris Berezovsky in April 2001, has published an open letter in which were these lines: “I threw the first. Did not realize it, Putin, KGB sharpening. Corrected. The next President will choose. Make no mistake”.

1 November 2000 it was announced the intention of the prosecution to present Berezovsky, charged with embezzlement of public funds in the case “Aeroflot”. Berezovsky, who was at that time abroad, decided not to return to Russia. However, criminal prosecution followed by “squeezing” abroad was not the only method of “taming the oligarchs.”

Putin would not have been a scout (and, as they say, scout is very good) if I didn’t understand one of the circumstances, the direct command of the repressive methods of the conspiracy of the oligarchs not to repay. It will fester and fester until you erupt with a bright flame of revolution. Probably, while working in the intelligence the President has learned the main principle enunciated in the ancient “Divide and conquer”. The result is quite loyal to the authorities, a group of oligarchs.

If you remember my favorite aphorism, which States that “in each person as much vanity as he lacks the mind” (Alexander Pope), was the division of Russian oligarchs in vain, desired political power and glory, and intelligent, wished to quietly keep “acquired by overwork”.

The highest ambitions for power had, of course, Mikhail Khodorkovsky. Now it’s funny to read the press 2000-2003, for which the very idea of the possibility of the arrest of Khodorkovsky seemed wild. Confidence in the support of the West was that of Khodorkovsky. Moreover, it was so strong that he said: “in the event of my arrest in a few hours on the red square with a landing of NATO.” However, the arrest took place, as the subsequent landing, which has already been described in detail in my article “How to put Khodorkovsky”

This landing made a sobering impression on the Russian oligarchy: in the first quarter of 2004, the MNF has recorded a tenfold increase in the collection of tax on mineral extraction (met), in 2003 LUKOIL voluntarily underpaid in the budget more than $103 million After “Yukos case” practically all oil companies have clarified their positions on taxes and began to make the budget much larger amount. In 2004, the growth in tax collection was 250 % of the 2003 level.

A year after landing Khodorkovsky, the total budget of the Russian Federation amounted to 6 TPH. 170 T. R. For comparison, in 2004 only 3 TPH. 326 T. R. That is, as you know, the budget has doubled! And the revenue from the oil sector rose 3.4 times, although it is possible to meet statements about 80-fold increase. Maybe this applies to certain types of taxes, for example, met.

And what about the other oligarchs of the Yeltsin-“semimonthly”?

Vladimir Potanin

Continues to do business in Russia. Political statements do not. According to Forbes, with a personal fortune of $15.4 billion, in 2015 became the richest businessman of Russia.

Alexander Smolensky

Officially retired, sort of relinquished control of the assets to the son, and all Bank projects slowly but surely withered. Now on its activities and the activities of the son are almost unheard of.

Vitaly Malkin

While afloat, was a Senator from Buryatia, but his Russian credit Bank which he had previously given to his friend – A. Motylev – lost their licenses.

Vladimir Vinogradov

After the collapse of Inkombank, Vinogradov suffered a heart attack and several strokes. He went bankruptand his family had to move into a rented one-bedroom apartment. In the early 2000s, the years Vinogradov has founded several leasing companies, but the business was not particularly successful. Died June 29, 2008 in Moscow in the result of a stroke

Mikhail Fridman and Pyotr Aven as owners and managers of Alfa group in the last time again “heard”

The American version of the magazine Forbes in 2015, assessed the condition of Friedman’s $14.6 billion (68th in the world). In the same year in the list of 200 richest businessmen of Russia compiled by the Russian edition of Forbes magazine, Friedman took 2nd place

Petr Aven in 2016, took the 19th place in the list of 200 richest businessmen of Russia with a personal fortune of 4.6 billion dollars. (according to Forbes)

Controlled by them Alfa-Bank became famous in 2016, an attempt to bankrupt the Corporation. Recently, Peter Aven has declared that Alfa-group is refusing to participate in projects of the Russian defense industry, referring to Western sanctions. However, Deputy Prime Minister for defense industry Dmitry Rogozin explained it this way:

I think that the history with Alfa group and its stupid owners will still be continued. It is possible that they will be involved in a new phase of “re-education of the oligarchs”.

The meeting of Russian President with leading businessmen that had such great importance under Yeltsin, under Putin is not stopped, but their character changed dramatically.

In the summer of 2002 , the Russian President participated in the IV Congress of the chamber of Commerce of Russia. There he tried to convey to representatives of domestic business simple idea that exported from Russia capital are not abroad in safety. On the contrary, the biggest threat to their freezing and, consequently, the loss of control of the owners. Finished Putin the emotional review: “Torment swallowing dust, running on courts to unlock them!”. As you can see, now, after 15 years, the same way, where Russian businessmen prepared for the dust, already smokes and dusts… Hardly forgotten and famous history in Pikalyovo, where Putin gave a public dressing Oleg Deripaska:

“The social responsibility of business” has since become interpreted as a necessary condition for the existence of the business itself. There is a real planting for nonpayment of wages.

In 2010, Vladimir Putin warned businessmen from using “gray schemes” and tax evasion. “I would like to remind that the improvement of the business climate is a two – way street, and not everything is dependent on the state“, – he said at a meeting with representatives “Business Russia”. Predatory privatization has quietly supplanted by a growing role of the state in the economy.

And here, in less than 15 years from the date of the meeting 2002, as the business Ombudsman Boris Titov said that he intends to ask President Vladimir Putin to give permission fugitive Russian businessmen to return home , subject to reimbursement of the damage caused by. And now the laws on the return of the “fugitive capital”. And note: not Putin asked the oligarchs, and they asked Putin. As, on hearings, wanted to ask shortly before his death, Berezovsky…

So without the noise and dust, without the social and other cataclysms, slowly but steadily oligarchic capital pushed to the margins of political life, and nothing about what “seven bankers” as a way to control Russia no one speaks.

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